Saturday, November 9, 2013

The Concept of Time in the Qur’an

A Muslim’s first source of guidance in life is the Qur’an, and so we turn to the Book of Allah for our initial inspiration in time management.

Surah Al-Asr

Most of us have committed to memory the beautiful, short surahAl-Asr (Quran 103:1-3). Admittedly, we often choose to recite it in our salah because of its brevity rather than for its profound meanings. And yet Imam Shafi’i asserted that if Allah had revealed only this surah, it would have been enough for the guidance of all humanity!
Allah begins the surah by taking an oath – ’Wa al-‘Asr’ – which means ‘by time’. Anything that Allah the Most High swears by in the Qur’an is a tremendous matter – such as ‘Wa al-Fajr’ (by the dawn) or ‘Wa al-Shams’ (by the sun). In the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), beginning with an oath was a method to draw the attention of the listener. Time is a concept that fascinated and awed the Arabs then, and it still fascinates Muslims now.
Inna al-insaana la fi khusr (Verily man is in a state of loss). The second verse starts by describing the general state of humanity – a state of loss, failure and a life which is a waste of time. However, the third verse starts with a glorious exception: Illa-allathina aamanuw (Except those who believe). Here then, the Qur’anic paradigm gives us, as Muslims, immense hope. No matter how lazy, inefficient, unproductive, mediocre or powerless we may be as individuals or as a community – as long as we live and die as Muslims – our life will not be a complete waste of time.
Conversely, no matter how busy, productive, efficient, successful and powerful non-Muslims may appear to be in this world – as long as they die rejecting Islam – none of their work is accepted. This reminds us of the timeless principle of Islam: innama al-‘amaalu bi in-niyyat (Actions are judged by intentions); any work or skill, be it running a company, serving the community or time management in general, must be acceptable to Allah for it to have any lasting benefit. For example, if we intend to set up a soup kitchen for the homeless and the whole project flops, as long as we intended it for Allah, we will be rewarded as if the project was the stunning success we hoped it would be. Yet if we succeed in building a massive corporate empire, we will gain nothing but regret in the next life, if we intended other than Allah’s good pleasure.
Even outwardly pious actions such as building masjids or helping other people or praying could even be punished if our intentions are to show off. So the Muslim’s first rule of time management is seeking acceptance from Allah – checking our intentions – which Surah al-Asr so succinctly reminds us.
Of course a Muslim is never complacent, relying only on belief for success. There must be work. And no other community can equal the Muslim ummah in terms of striving for both dunya and akhira – not neglecting the rights of Allah or the needs of fellow man. The second half of the last ayah explains why: wa ‘amilu-saalihaati (and do righteous deeds). Such good deeds include all the great acts of worship in Islam which encompass every possible beneficial use of one’s time: prayer, supplication, pilgrimage, charity, helping the poor, defending the weak, excellence in dealings and so on.
The last words of the surah provide one of the most important examples of such good works – good counsel: watawaa saw bi al-haqq Watawaa saw bi is-sabri  (and enjoin upon one another truth [i.e. the beliefs and practices of Islam] and enjoin upon one another patience [from committing acts of disobedience]).
Hasan al-Basri, one of the greatest scholars in Islamic history from the blessed generation after the Sahaba (Taabi’een), is reported to have had the following inspiration about Surah al-‘Asr. On a sweltering hot day, on a street of Baghdad, he heard an ice-seller exclaim, ‘O people! Have mercy on one whose capital is melting away.’ Sheikh al-Hasan made an immediate connection with time. Just as the ice-seller would make a loss if his capital melted away, man in general will make a loss in the business of life, if we allow our capital to melt away. Our capital is time and Allah reminds us in Surah al-‘Asr that if we waste our capital (time) solely for the dunyathen we make al-khusr (tremendous loss).
It is not unusual for Allah to use the metaphor of business to describe the life of this world and our purpose in it. One of the most powerful verses of the Qur’an talks of Allah ‘purchasing’ our lives:
Indeed Allah has purchased from the believers their very lives and their wealth, promising them Paradise in return (Qur’an 9: 111)
What an excellent transaction this is! So I pray that the readers and this needy author may benefit from the meanings of Surah al-‘Asr; that we may recite it during salah with full concentration and that we live our lives according to it – thereby following a massive principle of Islamic time management: believe and do good deeds for Allah alone. Only then will we not waste our life.

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What are some of the business / management lessons in Qur'an and Bible?

There are several Aayahs in the Holy Quran which declare the ‘usool’ or principles in doing business transactions:

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 188:Do not usurp one another’s property by unjust means, nor offer it to the judges (as bribe) so that you may devour knowingly and unjustly a portion of the goods of others.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 4 Surah Nisaa verse 29:O you who have believed! Do not devour one another’s property by unlawful ways; but do business with mutual consent.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 11 Surah Hud verse 85:(Prophet Shuaib said ): “And O my people! Give just measure and weight, nor withhold from the people the things that are their due: commit not evil in the land with intent to do mischief.

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 83 Surah Mutaffefeen verses 1-6:
1 Woe to those that deal in fraud
2 Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure.
3 But when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due.
4 Do they not think that they will be called to account?
5 On a Mighty Day
6 A Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of the Worlds?

Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 17 Surah Israa verse 35:34 Come not nigh to the orphan's property, except to improve it until he attains the age of full strength; and fulfill (every) pledge, for (every) pledge will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).

35 Give full measure when ye measure and weigh with a balance that is straight: that is the most fitting and the most advantageous in the final determination.

Allah says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 274-276: But those who devour ‘riba’ become like the one whom Shaitaan has bewitched and maddened by his touch. They have been condemned to this condition because they say, “Trade is just like ‘riba”, whereas Allah has made trade halaal and ‘riba’ haraam. Henceforth, if one abstains from taking ‘riba’ after receiving this admonition from his Lord, no legal action shall be taken against him regarding the ‘riba’ he had devoured before: his case shall ultimately go to Allah. But if one repeats the same crime even after this, he shall go to Hell, where he shall abide for ever!
Allah deprives ‘riba’ of all blessing and develops charity, and Allah does not like an ungrateful, sinful person.